Information for patients and carers

What is a tracheostomy?

An artificial opening in the front of the neck into the trachea (windpipe). This can be performed by head and neck surgeons or by intensive care doctors. It allows access to the trachea for a variety of reasons, most commonly to 'secure' a safe airway for patients to breathe or to allow prolonged ventilation. Other indications are when a patients cannot safely manage food, liquid or even oral secretions ('protection' of the airway) or if there is a reduced conscious level.

What is a laryngectomy?

This is surgical removal of the larynx (voicebox) usually for throat cancer. There is no longer a connection between the patient's nose and mouth (upper airways) and the lungs. The patient effectively breathes through their neck

Is it permanent?

Total laryngectomies result in permanent changes to the airway anatomy, although partial laryngectomies are possible. Tracheostomies are often temporary but can be long term or permanent, depending on why they were inserted in the first instance.

What problems can occur with a tracheostomy?

Problems can occur at the time of insertion (airway problems, lack of oxygen, bleeding or damage to adjacent structures) or later. Tracheostomy tubes can become blocked or displaced and sometimes this is not always obvious. Later complications include problems with the wound (stoma) or narrowing or weakness of the trachea itself.

Where can I find further information or help?

There are a number of patient groups and related websites that can offer further information. These are listed in the links section. We regret that we cannot respond to enquiries about individual patients.


We have developed 3 e-learning modules in partnership with the NHS
e-learning for healthcare project and the Royal College of Anaesthetists.

Click for eLfH website

Visit e-Learning for more information.

Emergency Algorithms

The project has collaborated with multidisciplinary stakeholders to develop unique guidelines for managing tracheostomy and larynegctomy emergencies.

View NTSP published guidelines paper here in Anaesthesia.

More information in the Algorithms pages.

Videos & Resources

We have developed a library of videos to demonstrate key steps in the routine and emergency management of neck breathing patients.

Click here to view our YouTube library

You can access our printed resources including the NTSP Manual 2013 from the Medical Resources page.